cupyx.scipy.signal.invres(r, p, k, tol=0.001, rtype='avg')[source]#

Compute b(s) and a(s) from partial fraction expansion.

If M is the degree of numerator b and N the degree of denominator a:

        b(s)     b[0] s**(M) + b[1] s**(M-1) + ... + b[M]
H(s) = ------ = ------------------------------------------
        a(s)     a[0] s**(N) + a[1] s**(N-1) + ... + a[N]

then the partial-fraction expansion H(s) is defined as:

    r[0]       r[1]             r[-1]
= -------- + -------- + ... + --------- + k(s)
  (s-p[0])   (s-p[1])         (s-p[-1])

If there are any repeated roots (closer together than tol), then H(s) has terms like:

  r[i]      r[i+1]              r[i+n-1]
-------- + ----------- + ... + -----------
(s-p[i])  (s-p[i])**2          (s-p[i])**n

This function is used for polynomials in positive powers of s or z, such as analog filters or digital filters in controls engineering. For negative powers of z (typical for digital filters in DSP), use invresz.

  • r (array_like) – Residues corresponding to the poles. For repeated poles, the residues must be ordered to correspond to ascending by power fractions.

  • p (array_like) – Poles. Equal poles must be adjacent.

  • k (array_like) – Coefficients of the direct polynomial term.

  • tol (float, optional) – The tolerance for two roots to be considered equal in terms of the distance between them. Default is 1e-3. See unique_roots for further details.

  • rtype ({'avg', 'min', 'max'}, optional) – Method for computing a root to represent a group of identical roots. Default is ‘avg’. See unique_roots for further details.


  • b (ndarray) – Numerator polynomial coefficients.

  • a (ndarray) – Denominator polynomial coefficients.